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- Geospatial Topology is the study of rules concerning relationships between points, lines and polygons that represent the features of a geographic region
- TopoJSON extends GeoJSON by encoding the topology of the geometric objects in GeoJSON
- The TopoJSON format represents geometries as line segments which are called "arcs"
- If two Geospatial regions that neighbor each other have 1 border, in GeoJSON this border would be defined in the polygon definitions twice, whereas in TopoJSON this border would be defined in "arcs" only once
- TopoJSON has four different key value pairs: "type", "transform", "objects", and "arcs"
- TopoJSON builds line segments made out of the initial coordinates, plus the subsequent deltas as defined in the "arcs" arrays